The Czech Republic is historically divided into three regions: Bohemia, Moravia, and a part of Silesia. The total area is 78,866 square kilometres and the country's population is around 10.4 million people. The capital and the largest city with 1.3 million inhabitants is Prague.There are 5 other metropolitan cities with a population exceeding 100,000: Brno, Plzeň, Olomouc, Ostrava and Liberec. The Czech Republic shares borders with Germany, Poland, Austria and Slovakia.
The country is surrounded by extensive mountain ranges, which form most of the border: the Krkonoše Mountains in the northeast; the Krušné Hory Mountains in the northwest; the Šumava Mountains in the west; the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains in Moravia and the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mountains. The highest point of elevation is the peak of Mt. Sněžka (1,602 m above sea level). Many important European rivers (Labe, Odra, Morava, Vltava etc.) flow through the country.
The Czech Republic, as a landlocked country, has moderate climate with four seasons corresponding to the temperate climate zone. The climate varies throughout year, depending also on the particular location within the Czech Republic. The average temperature in January, the coldest winter month, is -4°C. Summer weather can be very warm with temperatures around 27°C in July. A nice time of the year to visit the Czech Republic is spring (mid-May to mid-June) and fall (September to mid-October), when the weather can be quite pleasant, although it can also be unpredictable.